Advisory for Farmers

Advisory for the Month of January:

  • Cover flowering house plants with double layer of newspapers, which in turn are covered with large sheets of brown paper. Avoid splashing of water over the plants.
  • In case of heavy snowfall go for shaking of limbs-mechanically in orchards and nursery.
  • Hot bed preparations can be started for raising vegetable nursery in advance.
  • Adopt Modified Leader System of training and pruning for stone, nut, and pome fruits, and Head-Kniffin or Bower System in grapes if not done earlier in bearing trees.
  • Create surface drainage channels in the fields of brown sarson and other rabi crops where there is likelihood of water stagnation during the spring months.
  • Apply white lead paint or Bordeaux/ Chaubattia paste on the cuts/scrapped surface of fruit trees.

Advisory for the Month of February:

  • Ensure orchard/field sanitation.
  • Improving and repairing of drainage channels in fields and orchards.
  • Pruning of established roses can be done towards the end of the month.
  • In line sown sarson maintain inter and intra row spacing of 30 ´ 10 cm and under broadcasted conditions maintain 35 plants per square meter area.
  • Preparation of hot-beds may be completed and sowing of seeds may be started.
  • Apply 15 kg nitrogen per hectare as first top dressing in last week in sarson crop.
  • In case of uprooted trees consequent to heavy snowfall cover their roots with soil to prevent their desiccation and subject such trees to heavy pruning before resumption of active growth in spring.

Advisory for the Month of March

  • March is ideal month for planting bare-rooted rose plants.
  • Perform grafting of apple, pear, plum, grapes etc.
  • Apply remaining quantity of 15 kg nitrogen per hectare as 2nd top-dressing at flowering stage in sarson.
  • Sow seeds of different fruits if not sown earlier and transplant suckers / seedlings of different fruit plants.
  • Top-dressing of nitrogen and weeding, hoeing in wheat may be done in 2nd
  • Drain excess water from seed and nursery beds.
  • Thinning in pea should be done during 2nd fortnight maintaining inter and intra row spacing of 40 and 10 cm respectively.
  • Prune fruit trees if not pruned earlier. Paint wounds where wound exceeds 2 cm with white lead paint.
  • In fodder oat, 1st top-dressing of nitrogen if not applied during last week of February, the same should be applied by the 1st week of March.
  • Provide proper drainage in apple orchards to drain off surface water.
  • Adopt Modified Leader System of training to young apple trees and Kniffen and Bower System in grapes.
  • Sow seeds of herbaceous perennials like Delphinium, Columbine, Statice, Platycodon, Phlox, and Gypsophylla by the end of March.
  • To raise seedlings of tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum and knoll-khol in open beds the convenient size beds (2 ´ 1 m) may be thoroughly prepared for raising of nursry.
  • Sowing of tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum, knoll-khol, sag and cucurbits should be done in hot beds.

Advisory for the Month of April:

  • White wash fruit trees especially with making formulation of hydrated lime 0.5 kg, Zinc Sulphate 0.03 kg and water 1000 lit. Add glue as per requirement.
  • In case of aphid infestation on mustard spray Methyl Demeton (25EC) @ 1ml/litre.
  • Timely sown oat and berseem should be cut during the first week of April. In case of berseem the cut should be 5 cm above the soil surface to facilitate quick re-growth. Irrigation be given immediately after cutting operation and apply 20 kg nitrogen as 2nd top-dressing immediately after the first cut.
  • Radish sowing may be continued.
  • Preparatory tillage for maize should be started.
  • Transplanting of seedlings of cole crops from hot beds should be done.
  • Land preparation for paddy nursery should be started by selecting 5% of the land in which paddy is to be transplanted for nursery purposes.
  • Cole and solanaceous vegetables may be sown by sowing of seeds in open nursery and convenient sized beds (2 ´ 1 m) may be prepared for raising nursery.
  • Orchards under rainfed conditions apply half dose of N and full dose of K and P during the month for all fruit trees. Under irrigated conditions apply half dose of N and K along full dose of P. Apply fertilizers strictly according to the package of practices of State Agriculture University.
  • Remove suckers from orchards and scrap dead barks and lichens from trees with bark scraper.

Advisory for the Month of May:

  • For apple scab and other foliar diseases conduct 2nd spray at petal fall (about 3 weeks after 1st spray) as per the recommendations provided in the spray schedule framed by State Agriculture University.
  • 2nd cutting of berseem be taken 30 days after 1st cutting during the 1st week of May and irrigate the fields immediately after cutting. In fodder oats final cutting be taken exactly when the crop has reached flowering stage i.e. flowering initiation.
  • House plant potting and re-potting should be completed by the end of May. Give sufficient water to the pots until the excess water comes out through the drainage holes lift winter and spring flowering bulbs from pots.
  • Fertilization of trees should be done by applying fertilizer (if not applied earlier) slightly away from the trunk up to the outer edge of the canopy of apple tree.
  • Seed sowing of cole, cucurbit, and solanaceaous crops may be continued.
  • Mulching (particularly under karewa conditions) should be done with green grass or straw to conserve moisture through precipitation. This will also help in suppressing weed growth.

Advisory for the Month of June:

  • In maize crop give 1st hand weeding when the plants are 10 to 12 cm tall i.e. 30 days after sowing give 2nd hand weeding 10 to 15 days after the 1st weeding, give 3rd weeding accompanied by earthing up operation about 50 to 55 days after sowing. Use 2 kg of Atrazine/ha as pre-emergence spray using 600 to 800 litres of water. In such case, give 1 hand weeding and earthing up, about 50 to 55 days after sowing.
  • Paddy transplantation should be started by using only 35 days old seedlings and complete transplanting by 15th Transplant robust seedlings at 3 to 4 leaf stage when plants are of about 20 cm height and only 3 healthy seedlings should be planted per hill whereas, 6 seedlings/hill under water-logged conditions keeping inter and intra row spacing 15 ´ 15 cm and 20 ´ 15 cm, respectively.
  • Harvesting of cherry fruits should be started after ensuring that it has attained desirable characteristic size, colour, texture and flavor. Fruits must be harvested carefully to avoid bruising.
  • Preparatory tillage of moong should be started with 2 to 3 ploughings accompanied by planking to obtain a desirable seed bed. For this purpose, 1 packet of Rhizobium culture is sufficient for 10 kg of seed. Make 10% gur solution (2 litres which will suffice to treat 10 kgs of seed). Treat the seeds for 10 minutes and dry under shade. Do not treat the seeds with Agroson or with any fungicide, in case of Rhizobium treatment.

Advisory for the Month of July:

  • Sowing of seeds of knoll khol, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale should be done in nursery beds with a fine tilth. In case of cabbage soil or seeds may be treated with Azotobacter or Azospirillium @2.5 kg/ha to enhance yield.
  • In maize; under irrigated conditions apply to dressing of N in 2 equal splits, 1st at the time of 1st weeding/ hoeing and 2nd split at the time of last weeding and hoeing. Under rainfed conditions top dressing of N should be done in a single dose at the time of 2nd weeding and hoeing operation.
  • The budding operation in case of stone fruits should be conducted during 1st fortnight of July. Before budding operation nursery should be irrigated for effective sap flow.
  • In rice; the top dressing of N be applied in 2 equal splits; 1st at tillering initiation i.e. 15 to 18 days after transplanting, and 2nd split at panicle initiation stage i.e. about 38 days after transplanting.
  • Harvesting of stone fruits should be conducted once after fruit have attained proper size and characteristic colour.
  • Sowing of fodder crops like; sorghum, maize, bajra etc. can be done up-to mid-July.

Advisory for the Month of August:

  • In case of maize top dressing of N @ 40 kg/ha should be done at knee-height stage. For other fodder crops like sorghum and bajra, apply top dose of N when plants have attained height of about 20 cm.
  • For fertilizer and water management in paddy, apply 2nd top-dressing of N at panicle initiation stage i.e. 38 to 40 days after transplanting. 
  • Drain out water from the field after the surface soil begins to crack. Avoid water stress at flowering stage.
  • In case of maize, wherever possible irrigation may be given at silking stage i.e. 75 days after sowing.
  • Harvesting of fruits must be done when they attain proper size and develop at least 50% of the varietal colour. Fruits are easy to detach and collect them in baskets to avoid bruises and cuts.
  • Almond should be harvested when the hulls begin to separate on tree itself.
  • in case of grapes, harvesting should be done when berries in the bunch have attained proper size, develop varietal colour and sweetness.
  • Keep the fruits under shade and clip off damaged and diseased berries from bunches.
  • Sort and grade harvested fruits. While packing fruits utmost care should be given to grading and quality of fruits.

Advisory for the Month of September:

  • In case of walnut, harvesting should be done only after ensuring that packing tissue of nuts has turned brown and hull removal is easy.
  • Walnuts can be harvested one week before expected date of harvest if sprayed with Ethephon 2000 ppm. This will hasten the dehiscence process and nuts obtained shall be clear without dark spots.
  • Harvesting of apple should be continued keeping in mind that fruits should be harvested only after they have attained characteristic skin colour, flesh and seed. Mature fruits generally tend to hold less tightly to trees and as such detach easily. Random samples should be subjected to starch-iodine tests and starch rating should be from 2 to 2.5 on 1-6 rating scale. Fruit firmness test should be done with the help of pressure tester and fruit pressure should range between 15 to 17 lbs/sq. inch.
  • In case of rice; stop irrigation after the advanced dough stage. Harvest the crop at physiological maturity stage. This is essential to avoid shedding of grains.
  • Select such land for the brown sarson/oilseed cultivation which possesses drainage facilities. Irrigate the land before ploughing wherever the fields are not in proper moisture condition, 2 ploughings accompanied by clod breaking operation will be adequate for obtaining a desirable seed bed. 1st ploughing should be given when fields are in proper moisture condition which can be determined by firmly pressing the soil in the fist and subsequently releasing the soil ball in the air. If soil mass disintegrates, then plough the land.
  • In case of maize pick the cobs from standing plants when the husk has turned yellowish brown in colour and grains contain about 22% moisture at this stage.
  • Dry the cobs in the open sun.
  • Thresh the cobs when maize grains have about 15% moisture content, but storage should be done at about 12% moisture content.
  • Under field conditions dry the maize grains in open sun for 4 to 5 days, before storage.

Advisory for the Month of October:

  • Any plantation made during the month of October should be well watered.
  • Care should be taken for the sanitation of orchards by removing thorns, bushes and other long weeds which are the breeding places for insects and pests.
  • A number of herbaceous perennials including primrose, columbine may be potted and kept indoors for early flowering in the following season.
  • Land preparation should be started for peas, lentil, wheat, oats, Lucerne, red-clover, berseem, and brown sarson. 1st ploughing should be given when fields are in proper moisture condition.
  • Root ball evergreen may be planted during the month.
  • Sowing of methi, garlic, coriander, spinach, and beet-root may be continued.
  • Collection of egg masses of hairy caterpillar and their subsequent destruction shall reduce infestation in coming seasons.
  • Transplanting of onion may be done by uprooting healthy seedling when bed is moist. Line planting may be adopted keeping 20 cm between the rows and 15 cm between the plants. Before transplanting the seedlings may be treated with proper fungicide.
  • Wooly aphid and San-Jose-Scale on apple can be managed by application of one of the insecticides; Methyl demoton (0.025%), Dimethoate (0.05%), Endosulfan (0.05%). In case infestation is restricted to only few plants it would be worthwhile to make spot treatment of the insecticides.
  • Transplanting of annuals and biennials may be done as soon as the beds become clear, prepare them by applying well rotten manure and fertilizer mixture of NPK before transplanting seedlings.
  • The spraying of fungicides against different diseases may be carried out as per the spray schedule of State Agriculture University.
  • Harvesting of apple should be continued. Fruits should be harvested only after ensuring that they have attained characteristic skin colour of peel, flesh and seed, texture and flavour.
  • Harvested fruits should be kept in cool place in the orchard to extract the field heat for better keeping quality.
  • An established hedge deciduous or evergreen can be moved to desired location from the middle of the month of October.
  • For sowing of Rabi crops viz. Brown Sarson, Peas, Wheat, Lentil (Masoor), Berseem and Oats, select well drained fields and ensure pre-sowing irrigation wherever the fields are not in proper moisture conditions. 2 to 3 ploughing accompanied by clod breaking operation be done to obtain a desired tilth. Other practices are summarized bellow in a tabular form:
Crop Variety Field operations
Brown Sarson KS-101 (Gulchin), Shalimar Brown Sarson-1
  • Starts sowing of seeds @ 375 to 500g per kanal up to mid October in lines with 30 cm inter row spacing.
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 3.25 kg Urea (basal dose), 5.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP and 8 kg Gypsum per kanal at the time of sowing.
Wheat Shalimar Wheat-1, VL-738, HS-240
  • Starts sowing of seeds from 10th to 20th of October @ 5 kg per kanal in lines with 23 cm inter row spacing. Place the seeds 3 to 5 cm deep into the soil.
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 3.5 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP and 1 kg Zinc sulphate per kanal at the time of sowing.
Peas Rachna, Prakash
  • Starts sowing of seeds from 15th October to 15th November @ 3 to 4 kg per kanal in lines with 30 cm spacing between the rows. Place the seeds 5 to 6 cm deep into the soil.
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Lentil (Masoor) Shalimar Masoor-1
  • Starts sowing of seeds from 15th October to 15th November @ 2 kg per kanal in lines with 25 cm spacing between the rows. Place the seeds 2 to 3cm deep into the soil.
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Berseem BL-180
  • Seed sowing should be completed by 15th October @ 1 to 1.25 kg per kanal
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Oats Sabzar, Shalimar Fodder Oats-1
  • Sow the seeds up to 15th October @ 5 kg per kanal in lines 20 cm apart.
  • Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 4.5 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.

Advisory for the Month of November:

  • To avoid the black rot / bacterial diseases in cabbage, knoll khol, cauliflower pluck the leaves showing initial symptoms of the diseases and ensure their destruction. After leaf plucking, immediately spray the crop with Streptocycline (0.03%), repeat the spray at 10 to 15 days, if required.
  • 1st thinning in brown-sarson should be done any time 20 days after germination. Remove excess plants in such manner that inter and intra row spacing of 30 ´ 10 cm is maintained finally i.e. 3.33 lakh plants/ha. While thinning keep extra plants in a row as an allowance for frost injury. Leftover excess plants can be removed during 1st to 2nd week of March. Under broadcast conditions, 1st thinning should be done in such a manner that approximately 50 plants are maintained per sq. meter area.
  • For seed production in root crops like; turnip, radish and carrot, select true to type roots. Prepare sticking by trimming, keeping about 5 cm of tops and 10 cm of root portion in carrot and radish. In turnip only tail portion is cut off. Before planting apply 1 ton FYM, 9 kg urea, 10 kg DAP and 5 kg MOP/kanal. Plant at a distance of 60 ´ 30 cm on well prepared ridges. Cover the crown portion of roots with soil to avoid exposure to frost.
  • Sowing of lentil should be done from 15th of October to 15th of November but preferably completed by October.
  • To protect the house plants bring the tender pot plants to a living room or protective house and keep additional protection material such as newspapers. On sunny days watering in excessively dried up pots can be done.
  • For seed production in cole crops, rogue out undesirable plants and allow true to type plants to produce seeds in in-situ method. In transplanting method select true to type plants and replant them at spacing of 30 ´ 30 cm in kale, 50 ´ 30 cm in knol khol and 60 ´ 45 cm in cabbage. Before planting, apply well rotten FYM @ 1 to 1.5 tonnes, 6 to 10 kg DAP, and 5 kg MOP per kanal as basal dose in kale and knoll khol. In kale remove apical portion of stalk and in knoll khol and cabbage remove outer leaves. Cover cabbage head and knoll khol partially with soil to avoid frost injury.

Advisory for the Month of December:

  • In case of heavy snowfall the shaking of fruit trees should be done manually and supports should be provided to the broken limbs of trees.
  • Provide drainage in brown sarson. In fields, where there is apprehension of water stagnation during spring months, create surface drainage channels during this lean period on priority basis so that topsoil surface does not get frozen.
  • Transplantation of onion may be continued.
  • Sowing of methi, orach, and spinach may be continued.
  • In order to reduce the population load of hairy caterpillar, san-jose-scale, pin hole borer, bark beetles etc. in coming spring, it is advisable, to collect and destroy the egg masses of the hairy caterpillar.
  • Continue pruning and destruction of infested branches with the insect pests.
  • Dead wood left in the orchard should be destroyed completely.
  • For training of young fruit trees, Modified Central Leader System for stone, nut fruits, and pome, and Kniffen, Head Or Bower System for grapes should be adopted.
  • For the control of san-jose-scale and other sucking pests, late dormant oil spray should be done only when the temperature remains above 4C0.
  • For growing garlic crop, plant cloves in well drained and loose soil. Divide the field into rectangular plots convenient for cultural operations. Before planting apply FYM 1.25 to 1.5 tones/ha and 8.3 kg urea, 6.6 kg DAP, and 5.00 kg MOP/kanal. Nitrogen should be given in two splits. Dibble the cloves in lines 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep and keeping their growing tips upwards at spacing of 15 ´ 10 cm.
  • During pruning of bearing trees, thin out dry diseased and intercepting branches and remove shoots with unproductive spurs. In case of old trees with open centre system retain only 4 to 5 wide angled scaffold branches uniformly distributed around the trunk. This will take care of the apprehended snow damage. Apply Bordeaux paint on cut surface with diameter 1 to 2 cm or more.

Package of Practices for Raising Vegetable Crops under the Agro-Climatic Conditions of Kashmir Valley

Crop with variety Seed rate per kannal Date of sowing Date of transplanting Spacing between line to line Spacing between plant to plant FYM Quintal per kannal Urea Kg per kannal DAP Kg per kannal MOP Kg per kannal Yield Quintal per kannal
Kale (1.Khanyari, 2. GM Dhari. ) 100 to 125 gram March to April & Aug-Sep. April- May & Sep-Oct. 30 cm 15 cm 125-150 8.8 6.6 5.1 10-12

Knolkhol (1. Early white.

2. Purple. King of market.)

60 to 75 gram March to Aug. April- Sep. 30 cm 15 cm 125-150 12.7 6.6 6.8 13-14
Cabbage (1. Golden acre. 2. Pussa Drum head.) 25 to 40 gram March to April & July-Aug, April- May & Sep-Oct. 45-60 cm 45 cm 75-100 15.4 6.6 5.1 12-15
Cauliflower (1. Snow ball.) 25 to 30 gram July-Aug. & April-May Aug-Sep. & May- June 60 cm 30cm 125-150 8.7 13.3 5.1 10-15
French bean (1. Bush top. 2. Cantender) 4-5 Kg April- June   30 cm 10 cm 100-125 2.1 6.6 5.1 3.5-5
Okra (1. Pusa sohani) 750-100 gram May   45 cm 30 cm 125-150 11.5 10 5.1 4-5
Radish for roughage (1. Scarlet globe. 2. French break. 3. Fast.) 400 to 500 gram March-June   20 cm 10 cm 125-150 5 2.8 2.1 4-5
Tomato (1. Shalimar-1. 2. Shalimar-2. 3. Roma.) 25 to 30 gram March-April April-15 June 45-60 cm 30-45 cm 125-150 11.5 10-13.3 5-7.6 11-12
Brinjal (1. Dilruba. 2. Pusa purple long. 3. Shalimar long.) 25 to 45 gram April–May May-15 June 60 cm 45-60 cm 100-125 14.2 13.3 10.2 8-10
Chilli (1. Shalimar long. 2. Kashmir long-1.) 75 to 100 gram April-15 May May-15 June 30 cm 20 cm 100-125 11.7 9 5.1 56-62
Capsicum (1. Nishat-1) 50 to 75 gram April-15 May May-15 June 60 cm 45 cm 100-125 11.5 10.0 5.1 7-10
Potato (1. Khofri jyoti. 2. Gulmargh special.) 100 to 120 kg March & July   60 cm 20 cm 125-150 16.6 11 8.5 100-125
Cucumber (1. Japanese long green. 2. Green express. ) 125 gram April- May   150 cm 50 cm 125-175 7.2 3.3 2.5 4.5
Pumpkin (1. Bhadami. 2. Arka chanden.) 300 gram April- May   300 cm 100 cm 125-175 6.7 5.5 4.2 11-14
Bottle gourd (1. Shalimar M Proud.) 300 to 400 gram April- May   200 cm
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